The 2010 Population and Housing Census records that nationally about 47.2% of dwelling units are occupied by their owners, while 31.1% lived in rented premises, 20.8% are occupied rent free. The results indicate that ownership of living units is mainly by private individuals, households’ members and relatives who are not household members. Only 3.7% of dwelling units are owned by employers (public and private).
The Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS) 5 classifies housing into eight (8) types as follows;
1. Rooms in compounds
2. Rooms (other types)
3. Separate houses (bungalow )
4. Flats/ apartments
5. Semi – detached houses
6. Several huts / buildings
7. Tents/ improvised housing (kiosks/ containers)
Compound houses still dominate the existing housing in urban Ghana but have declined from 62 per cent of Accra’s housing stock in 1990 to 42.5% in 2000. Newer forms, such as bungalows and especially flats and informal types (wooden shacks, kiosks, etc.) are growing very rapidly in proportion, but each is still a small component of the stock. In contrast, in Tamale, the housing sector profile found that all four of the sampled houses in newly- developing areas are compounds. Out of the 11.5 million rooms in Ghana, 40 percent (4.6 million) are in urban areas of which 13 percent (1.5 million) are in Greater Accra Region.
There is a high concentration of households in the urban Ghana (around two fifths – 2.7 million) occupying single rooms. It is evident, also, that about one third of urban households manage to obtain two rooms (31% in Accra) but very few enjoy three or more rooms. In Accra almost 60 percent of rented or rent – free properties are owned by private landlords; 50 percent in other urban areas. In Accra, about one in four renter and rent – free households live in houses owned by a relative but about 40 percent do in the rest of the urban areas. Publicly – owned housing is a small proportion of all rented and rent – free accommodation, only 9.3 percent in Accra and 4 percent elsewhere.
Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing..2015